Using a custom monad

In this section we will create an API for a book shelf without any backing DB storage. We will keep state in memory and share it between requests using Reader monad and STM.

We start with a pretty standard set of imports and definition of the model:

{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds     #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveGeneric #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeOperators #-}

import           Control.Concurrent          (forkIO, killThread)
import           Control.Concurrent.STM.TVar (TVar, newTVar, readTVar,
import           Control.Exception           (bracket)
import           Control.Monad.IO.Class      (liftIO)
import           Control.Monad.STM           (atomically)
import           Control.Monad.Trans.Reader  (ReaderT, ask, runReaderT)
import           Data.Aeson                  (FromJSON, ToJSON)
import           GHC.Generics                (Generic)
import           Network.HTTP.Client         (defaultManagerSettings,
import           Network.Wai.Handler.Warp    (run)

import           Servant
import           Servant.Client

newtype Book = Book String deriving (Show, Generic)
instance ToJSON Book
instance FromJSON Book

Now, let’s define the API for book storage. For the sake of simplicity we’ll only have methods for getting all books and adding a new one.

type GetBooks = Get '[JSON] [Book]
type AddBook = ReqBody '[JSON] Book :> PostCreated '[JSON] Book
type BooksAPI = "books" :> (GetBooks :<|> AddBook)

api :: Proxy BooksAPI
api = Proxy

Next, we define the state and the monad to run our handlers

data State = State
  { books :: TVar [Book]

type AppM = ReaderT State Handler

Note that we can’t use State monad here, because state will not be shared between requests.

We can now define handlers in terms of AppM

server :: ServerT BooksAPI AppM
server = getBooks :<|> addBook
  where getBooks :: AppM [Book]
        getBooks = do
          State{books = p} <- ask
          liftIO $ atomically $ readTVar p

        addBook :: Book -> AppM Book
        addBook book = do
          State{books = p} <- ask
          liftIO $ atomically $ readTVar p >>= writeTVar p . (book :)
          return book

…and transform AppM to Handler by simply using runReaderT

nt :: State -> AppM a -> Handler a
nt s x = runReaderT x s

app :: State -> Application
app s = serve api $ hoistServer api (nt s) server

Finally, we end up with the following program

main :: IO ()
main = do
  let port = 8080
  mgr <- newManager defaultManagerSettings
  initialBooks <- atomically $ newTVar []
  let runApp = run port $ app $ State initialBooks
  bracket (forkIO runApp) killThread $ \_ -> do
    let getBooksClient :<|> addBookClient = client api
    let printBooks = getBooksClient >>= liftIO . print
    _ <- flip runClientM (mkClientEnv mgr (BaseUrl Http "localhost" port "")) $ do
      _ <- printBooks
      _ <- addBookClient $ Book "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix"
      _ <- printBooks
      _ <- addBookClient $ Book "To Kill a Mockingbird"
      _ <- printBooks
      _ <- addBookClient $ Book "The Picture of Dorian Gray"
    return ()

When run, it outputs the following:

Running cookbook-using-custom-monad...
[Book "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix"]
[Book "To Kill a Mockingbird",Book "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix"]
[Book "The Picture of Dorian Gray",Book "To Kill a Mockingbird",Book "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix"]

To use Raw endpoints, look at the servant-rawm package.